Controlled deposition of picoliter amounts of fluid using an ultrasonically driven micropipette
A ﬂuid microplotter that uses ultrasonics to deposit small ﬂuid features has been constructed. It consists of a dispenser, composed of a micropipette fastened to a piece of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric, attached to a precision positioning system. When an electrical signal of the appropriate frequency and voltage is applied, solution in the tip of the micropipette wicks to the surface in a controlled fashion. The gentle pumping of ﬂuid to the surface occurs when the micropipette is driven at frequencies in the range of 400 – 700 kHz. Spots with diameters smaller than several microns can be deposited in this manner. Continuous lines can also be produced. Several examples of deposited patterns and structures are described. This means of deposition represents a higher-resolution alternative to standard ﬂuid deposition techniques in the fabrication of biological microarrays or polymer-based circuits.